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AISI 414 (S41400) Stainless Steel

AISI 414 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 414 is the AISI designation for this material. S41400 is the UNS number. It can have a moderately high tensile strength among the wrought martensitic stainless steels in the database.

The properties of AISI 414 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 414 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

430 to 480 MPa 62 to 70 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

50 %

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

550 to 590 MPa 80 to 86 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

900 to 960 MPa 130 to 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

700 to 790 MPa 100 to 110 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 730 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

750 °C 1380 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1440 °C 2630 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

25 W/m-K 14 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.5 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

8.0 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

29 MJ/kg 12 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

13

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 to 150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1260 to 1590 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 to 34 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

27 to 28 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.7 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

33 to 35 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 414 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Nickel is primarily used to achieve a specific microstructure. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on mechanical properties and certain types of corrosion. Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 81.8 to 87.3
Chromium (Cr) 11.5 to 13.5
Nickel (Ni) 1.3 to 2.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010