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AISI 422 (Alloy 616, S42200) Stainless Steel

AISI 422 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 422 is the AISI designation for this material. S42200 is the UNS number. And Alloy 616 is the common industry name.

It has the highest electrical conductivity among wrought martensitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately high embodied energy and a moderately high base cost.

The properties of AISI 422 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 422 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

260 to 330

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

15 to 17 %

Fatigue Strength

410 to 500 MPa 59 to 73 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Reduction in Area

34 to 40 %

Rockwell C Hardness


Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

560 to 660 MPa 81 to 95 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

910 to 1080 MPa 130 to 160 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

670 to 870 MPa 97 to 130 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

380 °C 720 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

650 °C 1200 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1480 °C 2700 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1470 °C 2680 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

24 W/m-K 14 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

4.7 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

5.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

11 % relative


7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

44 MJ/kg 19 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)


Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 to 150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1140 to 1910 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 to 38 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

26 to 30 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.4 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

33 to 39 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 422 stainless steel is notable for including tungsten (W) and vanadium (V). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects. Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe)Fe 81.9 to 85.8
Chromium (Cr)Cr 11 to 12.5
Molybdenum (Mo)Mo 0.9 to 1.3
Tungsten (W)W 0.9 to 1.3
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0.5 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni)Ni 0.5 to 1.0
Silicon (Si)Si 0 to 0.5
Vanadium (V)V 0.2 to 0.3
Carbon (C)C 0.2 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S)S 0 to 0.025

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A565: Standard Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel Bars for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A176: Standard Specification for Stainless and Heat-Resisting Chromium Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010