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EN 1.4931 (GX23CrMoV12-1) Cast Steel

EN 1.4931 steel is an alloy steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. 1.4931 is the EN numeric designation for this material. GX23CrMoV12-1 is the EN chemical designation.

It has the highest base cost among cast alloy steels. In addition, it has the highest electrical conductivity and the lowest thermal conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.4931 steel to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

240

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

410 MPa 60 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

30 J 22 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

810 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

620 MPa 89 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

600 °C 1110 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

24 W/m-K 14 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

9.8 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

11 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

8.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

42 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

16

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

130 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

970 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

29 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.5 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

22 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.4931 steel is notable for including tungsten (W). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects.

Iron (Fe) 83.2 to 86.8
Chromium (Cr) 11.3 to 12.2
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.0 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 0.8
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 1.0
Vanadium (V) 0.25 to 0.35
Tungsten (W) 0 to 0.5
Carbon (C) 0.2 to 0.26
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 4991: Steel castings for pressure purposes

EN 10293: Steel castings - Steel castings for general engineering uses

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015