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EN 1.4935 (X20CrMoWV12-1) Stainless Steel

EN 1.4935 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.4935 is the EN numeric designation for this material. X20CrMoWV12-1 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately high embodied energy among the wrought martensitic stainless steels in the database.

The properties of EN 1.4935 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.4935 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

16 to 18 %

Fatigue Strength

350 to 400 MPa 51 to 58 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

480 to 540 MPa 70 to 78 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

780 to 880 MPa 110 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

570 to 670 MPa 83 to 97 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

380 °C 720 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

740 °C 1360 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

24 W/m-K 14 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

9.0 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

42 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

16

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

130 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

830 to 1160 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

28 to 31 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

24 to 26 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.5 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

27 to 30 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4935 stainless steel is notable for including tungsten (W) and vanadium (V). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects. Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 83 to 86.7
Chromium (Cr) 11 to 12.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.8 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.8
Nickel (Ni) 0.3 to 0.8
Tungsten (W) 0.4 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0.1 to 0.5
Vanadium (V) 0.2 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0.17 to 0.24
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10302: Creep resisting steels, nickel and cobalt alloys

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015