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AISI 446 (S44600) Stainless Steel

AISI 446 stainless steel is a ferritic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. 446 is the AISI designation for this material. S44600 is the UNS number. Additionally, the AFNOR (French) designation is Z10C24.

This material is well established: the Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

It has a fairly low electrical conductivity among wrought ferritic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately low thermal conductivity and a moderately high tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AISI 446 stainless steel to: wrought ferritic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

23 %

Fatigue Strength

200 MPa 29 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Reduction in Area

50 %

Rockwell B Hardness

84

Shear Modulus

79 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

360 MPa 52 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

570 MPa 83 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

300 MPa 44 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

290 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

440 °C 830 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1180 °C 2150 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1510 °C 2750 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1430 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

490 J/kg-K 0.12 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

17 W/m-K 9.9 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

12 % relative

Calomel Potential

-230 mV

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

35 MJ/kg 15 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

150 L/kg 18 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

27

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

230 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

26 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.6 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 446 stainless steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 69.2 to 77
Chromium (Cr) 23 to 27
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.5
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.75
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.25
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.2
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A176: Standard Specification for Stainless and Heat-Resisting Chromium Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

EN 10095: Heat resisting steels and nickel alloys

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996