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ASTM A182 Grade F1 (K12822) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F1 is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. F1 is the ASTM designation for this material. K12822 is the UNS number.

It has a very low electrical conductivity among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a moderately low embodied energy and a moderately low base cost.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F1 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

22 %

Fatigue Strength

220 MPa 32 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

34 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

340 MPa 50 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

540 MPa 79 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

310 MPa 45 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

410 °C 760 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

50 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.4 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

48 L/kg 5.7 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

260 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

19 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F1 is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo). Manganese is used to improve hardenability, hot workability, and surface quality. There is some loss of ductility and weldability, however. Molybdenum is used to facilitate tempering. In addition, it offers modest bonuses to a wide range of material properties.

Iron (Fe) 97.7 to 98.8
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 0.9
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.44 to 0.65
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.28
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.045

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service