# ASTM A414 Grade F Steel

ASTM A414 grade F is a type of ASTM A414 steel. Cited properties are appropriate for the hot worked condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A414 grade F to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

15 *%*

Fatigue Strength

210 *MPa* 30 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

340 *MPa* 49 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

550 *MPa* 80 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

320 *MPa* 47 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 760 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2660 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

49 *W/m-K* 28 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.2 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.5 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

20 *MJ/kg* 8.5 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

48 *L/kg* 5.7 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

69 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

280 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

20 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

13 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 96.8 to 99.98 | |

Mn | 0 to 1.2 | |

Ni | 0 to 0.4 | |

Cu | 0 to 0.4 | |

C | 0 to 0.31 | |

Si | 0 to 0.3 | |

Cr | 0 to 0.3 | |

Mo | 0 to 0.12 | |

Al | 0.020 to 0.080 | |

P | 0 to 0.035 | |

S | 0 to 0.035 | |

V | 0 to 0.030 | |

Ti | 0 to 0.025 | |

Nb | 0 to 0.020 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM A414: Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, and High-Strength, Low-Alloy for Pressure Vessels

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015