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AWS E312 (W31310) Weld Metal

AWS E312 is a weld metal formulated for joining stainless steels. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-welded condition. E312 is the AWS designation for this material. W31310 is the UNS number. Additionally, the ISO numeric designation is ES312.

It has a moderately high tensile strength and a moderately low embodied energy among stainless steel welding fillers.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AWS E312 to: stainless steel welding fillers (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 30 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

25 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Shear Modulus

80 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

740 MPa 110 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

310 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1360 °C 2490 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.12 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

15 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

20 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

52 MJ/kg 22 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

200 L/kg 23 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

31

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

27 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

24 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 52.3 to 63.5
Chromium (Cr) 28 to 32
Nickel (Ni) 8.0 to 10.5
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 2.5
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.75
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.75
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

AWS A5.4: Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012