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Ductile (Nodular, Spheroidal) Cast Iron

Ductile cast iron is a cast iron.

The properties of ductile cast iron include nine common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare ductile cast iron to: cast irons (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

160 to 310

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

170 to 180 GPa 24 to 26 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

2.1 to 20 %

Fracture Toughness

14 to 30 MPa-m1/2 13 to 27 x 103 psi-in1/2

Poisson's Ratio

0.28 to 0.31

Shear Modulus

64 to 70 GPa 9.3 to 10 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

420 to 800 MPa 60 to 120 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

460 to 920 MPa 66 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

310 to 670 MPa 45 to 98 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

290 °C 550 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1160 °C 2120 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1120 °C 2050 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

490 J/kg-K 0.12 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

31 to 36 W/m-K 18 to 21 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.8 to 9.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.9 % relative

Density

7.1 to 7.5 g/cm3 440 to 470 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 8.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

43 L/kg 5.1 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

17 to 80 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

280 to 1330 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

12 to 14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 to 26 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 to 35 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

18 to 29 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.9 to 10 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 to 35 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 93.7 to 95.5
Carbon (C) 3.0 to 3.5
Silicon (Si) 1.5 to 2.8
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.080

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

SAE J434: Automotive Ductile (Nodular) Iron Castings

ISO 1083: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Irons - Classification

ASTM A536: Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Castings

ASTM A395: Standard Specification for Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures

Cast Iron: Physical and Engineering Properties, Harold T. Angus, 1976

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008