# EN 1.0116 (S235J2G3) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.0116 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized condition. 1.0116 is the EN numeric designation for this material. S235J2G3 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly low tensile strength and a moderately low thermal conductivity among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0116 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

110

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

23 *%*

Fatigue Strength

140 *MPa* 21 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

28 *J* 21 *ft-lb*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

240 *MPa* 35 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

380 *MPa* 55 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

200 *MPa* 29 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2660 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

49 *W/m-K* 28 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.0 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

19 *MJ/kg* 8.1 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

47 *L/kg* 5.6 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

72 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

110 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

15 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

13 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

12 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 97.1 to 100 | |

Mn | 0 to 1.4 | |

Si | 0 to 0.55 | |

Cr | 0 to 0.3 | |

Ni | 0 to 0.3 | |

C | 0 to 0.17 | |

Mo | 0 to 0.080 | |

P | 0 to 0.035 | |

S | 0 to 0.035 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

EN 10250-2: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 2: Non-alloy quality and special steels

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015