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EN 1.1191 (C45E) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.1191 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.1191 is the EN numeric designation for this material. C45E is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately low thermal conductivity among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels. In addition, it can have a moderately high tensile strength and a moderately low ductility.

The properties of EN 1.1191 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.1191 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

180 to 200

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

16 to 17 %

Fatigue Strength

210 to 290 MPa 30 to 42 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

16 to 29 J 12 to 22 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

380 to 430 MPa 56 to 63 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

630 to 700 MPa 91 to 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

310 to 440 MPa 45 to 63 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

48 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.1 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.2 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

47 L/kg 5.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

83 to 100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

260 to 510 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

22 to 25 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 to 22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

20 to 22 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.3 to 99.08
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 0.8
Carbon (C) 0.42 to 0.5
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.4
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.4
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.1
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10250-2: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 2: Non-alloy quality and special steels

EN 10297-1: Seamless circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

EN 10269: Steels and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low temperature properties

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015