# Grade 25 (R56403) Titanium

Grade 25 titanium is a titanium alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. R56403 is the UNS number for this material. Additionally, the ASTM designation is Titanium Grade 25.

It has a moderately high heat capacity among wrought titaniums. In addition, it has a moderately low melting temperature and a moderately high embodied energy.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade 25 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 15 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

11 *%*

Fatigue Strength

550 *MPa* 80 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

29 *%*

Shear Modulus

40 *GPa* 5.8 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

600 *MPa* 87 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1000 *MPa* 150 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

940 *MPa* 140 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

340 *°C* 640 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1610 *°C* 2920 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1560 *°C* 2830 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

560 *J/kg-K* 0.13 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

7.1 *W/m-K* 4.1 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

9.6 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.0 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.0 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Density

4.5 *g/cm ^{3}* 280

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

43 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

700 *MJ/kg* 300 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

320 *L/kg* 38 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

4220 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

62 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

50 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

2.8 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

71 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Ti | 86.7 to 90.6 | |

Al | 5.5 to 6.8 | |

V | 3.5 to 4.5 | |

Ni | 0.3 to 0.8 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.4 | |

O | 0 to 0.2 | |

Pd | 0.040 to 0.080 | |

C | 0 to 0.080 | |

N | 0 to 0.050 | |

H | 0 to 0.013 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015