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SAE-AISI 9310 (1.6657, G93106) Ni-Cr-Mo Steel

SAE-AISI 9310 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 9310 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. 1.6657 is the EN numeric designation. And G93106 is the UNS number.

It has the highest base cost among SAE-AISI wrought steels. In addition, it has a moderately high electrical conductivity and a moderately high embodied energy.

The properties of SAE-AISI 9310 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 9310 steel to: SAE-AISI wrought steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

540 to 610

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 to 19 %

Fatigue Strength

300 to 390 MPa 43 to 56 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Rockwell B Hardness

240 to 270

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

510 to 570 MPa 73 to 82 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

820 to 910 MPa 120 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

450 to 570 MPa 65 to 83 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

440 °C 820 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

48 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.7 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

4.4 % relative


7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

24 MJ/kg 10 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

57 L/kg 6.8 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 to 150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

540 to 860 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

29 to 32 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 to 27 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

24 to 27 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of SAE-AISI 9310 steel is notable for including nickel (Ni) and containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Nickel is used to improve mechanical properties, and to make the alloy easier to heat treat. Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures).

Iron (Fe)Fe 93.8 to 95.2
Nickel (Ni)Ni 3.0 to 3.5
Chromium (Cr)Cr 1.0 to 1.4
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0.45 to 0.65
Silicon (Si)Si 0.2 to 0.35
Molybdenum (Mo)Mo 0.080 to 0.15
Carbon (C)C 0.080 to 0.13
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S)S 0 to 0.012

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A646: Standard Specification for Premium Quality Alloy Steel Blooms and Billets for Aircraft and Aerospace Forgings

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015