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UNS S32654 (Alloy 654) Stainless Steel

S32654 stainless steel is a superaustenitic (highly alloyed) stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. S32654 is the UNS number for this material. Alloy 654 is the common industry name.

It has a fairly high electrical conductivity among wrought superaustenitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a fairly low thermal conductivity and a moderately high ductility.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare S32654 stainless steel to: wrought superaustenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

210 GPa 30 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

45 %

Fatigue Strength

450 MPa 65 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

46 %

Shear Modulus

82 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

590 MPa 86 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

850 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

490 MPa 70 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

310 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

440 °C 830 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2560 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

460 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

11 W/m-K 6.4 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

15 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

34 % relative

Density

8.0 g/cm3 500 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

6.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

87 MJ/kg 37 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

220 L/kg 26 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

57

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

330 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

570 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

29 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 points

Thermal Diffusivity

2.9 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of S32654 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr). Manganese is used to improve ductility at elevated temperatures. It also permits a higher nitrogen content than would otherwise be possible. Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 38.3 to 45.3
Chromium (Cr) 24 to 25
Nickel (Ni) 21 to 23
Molybdenum (Mo) 7.0 to 8.0
Manganese (Mn) 2.0 to 4.0
Nitrogen (N) 0.45 to 0.55
Copper (Cu) 0.3 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.0050

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010