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EN 1.4594 (X5CrNiMoCuNb14-5) Stainless Steel

EN 1.4594 stainless steel is a precipitation-hardening stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.4594 is the EN numeric designation for this material. X5CrNiMoCuNb14-5 is the EN chemical designation.

It can have a moderately low tensile strength among the wrought precipitation-hardening stainless steels in the database.

The properties of EN 1.4594 stainless steel include four common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.4594 stainless steel to: wrought precipitation-hardening stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 to 17 %

Fatigue Strength

490 to 620 MPa 71 to 91 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

620 to 700 MPa 91 to 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1020 to 1170 MPa 150 to 170 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

810 to 1140 MPa 120 to 170 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

450 °C 840 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

820 °C 1510 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2560 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.5 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

15 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.2 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

45 MJ/kg 19 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

130 L/kg 15 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

19

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 to 190 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1660 to 3320 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

36 to 41 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

29 to 31 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.4 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

34 to 39 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4594 stainless steel is notable for including niobium (Nb) and copper (Cu). Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength, particularly at elevated temperatures. Copper is used to improve resistance to acids, and to improve formability.

Iron (Fe) 72.6 to 79.5
Chromium (Cr) 13 to 15
Nickel (Ni) 5.0 to 6.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.2 to 2.0
Copper (Cu) 1.2 to 2.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Niobium (Nb) 0.15 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.070
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys: Traditional and Nontraditional Techniques, Helmi A. Youssef, 2016

EN 10088-3: Stainless steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products, bars, rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010