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AISI 416 (S41600) Stainless Steel

AISI 416 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 416 is the AISI designation for this material. S41600 is the UNS number.

It can have the highest ductility and has a moderately low embodied energy among wrought martensitic stainless steels.

The properties of AISI 416 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 416 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

230 to 320

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

13 to 31 %

Fatigue Strength

230 to 340 MPa 33 to 50 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

340 to 480 MPa 49 to 70 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

510 to 800 MPa 75 to 120 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

290 to 600 MPa 43 to 87 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 740 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

680 °C 1250 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1530 °C 2790 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1480 °C 2700 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

30 W/m-K 17 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

9.9 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

7.0 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

27 MJ/kg 12 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

13

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

98 to 140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

220 to 940 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 to 29 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

18 to 25 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.1 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 to 30 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 416 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance. Manganese is used to improve ductility at elevated temperatures. It also permits a higher nitrogen content than would otherwise be possible.

Iron (Fe) 83.2 to 87.9
Chromium (Cr) 12 to 14
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.3
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Sulfur (S) 0.15 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.060

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A895: Standard Specification for Free-Machining Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010