# ASTM A36 (SS400, S275) Structural Carbon Steel

ASTM A36 carbon steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition.

It has a very high electrical conductivity among the wrought carbon or non-alloy steels in the database.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A36 carbon steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

140

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

22 *%*

Fatigue Strength

200 *MPa* 29 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

300 *MPa* 44 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

480 *MPa* 69 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

290 *MPa* 41 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2670 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

50 *W/m-K* 29 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

11 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

12 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

14 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

18 *MJ/kg* 7.8 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

44 *L/kg* 5.3 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

92 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

220 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

14 *m ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 99.25 to 100 | |

Si | 0 to 0.4 | |

C | 0 to 0.26 | |

S | 0 to 0.050 | |

P | 0 to 0.040 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM A36: Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015