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EN 1.1221 (C60E) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.1221 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.1221 is the EN numeric designation for this material. C60E is the EN chemical designation.

It can have a fairly high tensile strength and has a moderately low thermal conductivity among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels.

The properties of EN 1.1221 steel include three common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.1221 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

210 to 250

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

10 to 21 %

Fatigue Strength

240 to 340 MPa 35 to 50 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

450 to 520 MPa 66 to 76 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

730 to 870 MPa 110 to 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

390 to 550 MPa 57 to 79 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

48 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.1 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.2 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

47 L/kg 5.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

67 to 130 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

410 to 800 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

26 to 31 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

23 to 26 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

23 to 28 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.1 to 98.8
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 0.9
Carbon (C) 0.57 to 0.65
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.4
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.4
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.1
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10250-2: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 2: Non-alloy quality and special steels

EN 10297-1: Seamless circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015