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EN 1.4938 (X12CrNiMoV12-3) Stainless Steel

EN 1.4938 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.4938 is the EN numeric designation for this material. X12CrNiMoV12-3 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly high embodied energy among wrought martensitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately high base cost and can have a moderately high tensile strength.

The properties of EN 1.4938 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.4938 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

16 to 17 %

Fatigue Strength

390 to 520 MPa 57 to 75 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

540 to 630 MPa 78 to 92 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

870 to 1030 MPa 130 to 150 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

640 to 870 MPa 93 to 130 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 730 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

750 °C 1380 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

30 W/m-K 17 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

10 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.3 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

47 MJ/kg 20 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

110 L/kg 13 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

18

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 to 160 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1050 to 1920 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

31 to 37 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

26 to 29 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.1 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

30 to 35 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4938 stainless steel is notable for including vanadium (V). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 80.5 to 84.8
Chromium (Cr) 11 to 12.5
Nickel (Ni) 2.0 to 3.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.5 to 2.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.9
Vanadium (V) 0.25 to 0.4
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Carbon (C) 0.080 to 0.15
Nitrogen (N) 0.020 to 0.040
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10302: Creep resisting steels, nickel and cobalt alloys

EN 10269: Steels and nickel alloys for fasteners with specified elevated and/or low temperature properties

Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys: Traditional and Nontraditional Techniques, Helmi A. Youssef, 2016

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010