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ASTM A182 Grade FR (K22035) Steel

ASTM A182 grade FR is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. FR is the ASTM designation for this material. K22035 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high thermal conductivity among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a very high ductility and a moderately low tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade FR to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

170

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

28 %

Fatigue Strength

270 MPa 39 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

43 %

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

320 MPa 46 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

490 MPa 71 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

360 MPa 52 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

410 °C 760 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

52 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.5 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.3 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 9.0 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

52 L/kg 6.2 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

340 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade FR is notable for including copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper is used to improve corrosion resistance, and to add at least some degree of precipitation hardenability. Nickel is used to improve mechanical properties, and to make the alloy easier to heat treat.

Iron (Fe) 95.2 to 97.3
Nickel (Ni) 1.6 to 2.2
Copper (Cu) 0.75 to 1.3
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 1.1
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.2
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service